Mare milk has a greater amount of total protein in human milk. Detailed are whey proteins, which represent more significatius advantages. The following table shows the notional amounts of each are listed.
This protein is not present in human milk. It has antimicrobial and antiviral qualities. It is able to inhibit pathogens in the gastrointestinal system, to promote the immune response of the organism and regulate cell growth ( Schanbacher et al. 1997 ). Furthermore, the β -lactoglobulin is the ability to transport minerals across the intestinal wall, thus facilitating absorption. It also facilitates the absorption of fat soluble vitamins such as retinol (vitamin A) ( Apaza et al. , 2011 ).
The serum α-lactalbumin protein has many different functions beneficial to our health. In reference to minerals, this protein helps in proper absorption of them , especially calcium ( Apaza et al. , 2011 ). Because of the high content of branched amino acids in the protein , it is used to reduce muscle tissue damage caused by exercise or anoxic conditions ( Tsuda , 2002). It is bactericidal, and also helps to digest lactose. Another quality he has is that it is a source of essential amino acids such as tryptophan which acts precursor of serotonin ( neurotransmitter) and from this melatonin is synthesized, pro acting biological clock ( night and day), in insomnia, ADHD, Alzheimer's, depression, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, migraines, irritable bowel syndrome, osteoporosis and epilepsy. Melatonin is also used for the treatment of cancer (breast, brain, lung, prostate, head, neck and gastrointestinal ) as well as the side effects caused by the chemotherapy. The Cliveland Ohayo ( USA ) Clinic is developing a vaccine against breast cancer from the α-lactalbumin protein is inducing apoptosis of tumor cells.
This protein is responsible for transporting substances such as fatty acids, amino acids, steroids, metals ( such as calcium) and various drugs via the bloodstream. These components will be transported to the organs where they are needed.
These molecules are very important to defend the body by identifying and neutralizing foreign agents. Its proper functioning is essential for defending the body against various pathogens.
Mainly there are three different types of immunoglobulins ( there are five in total) in mare's milk. These are IgG, IgA, and IgM.
Immunoglobulin G is the only one that has the ability to cross biological membranes. It is also important to say that when it comes to produce a secondary immune response, most immunoglobulins are of this type.
Immunoglobulin A can be secreted by the mucous membranes and exocrine glands, making your most important action on the mucosal surfaces and body fluids ( such as cerebrospinal fluid, bronchial secretions, tears, saliva, etc ...). Thus this type of immunoglobulin has the ability to protect the most vulnerable points of the body: eyes, mouth, digestive system, respiratory system, vagina, etc ...
Finally, the immunoglobulin M is responsible for developing an advocacy role in the intravascular space, this type is formed more quickly to a primary response.
Thus it can be seen to have reinforcement day defenses can be beneficial to the body since it can act more effectively against pathogens.
This protein has antimicrobial capacity, quality very useful for protection of our body. Provides protection against pathogenic bacteria that colonize or invade the mucosa. Is used as a preventative for pediatric intestinal infections. Lactoferrin is also used as a natural antibiotic and lysozyme (which will be discussed below) or as antibiotics that are effective against bacteria that have developed resistance to several different antibiotics ( Drago, 2006). Lactoferrin also has the ability to bind iron and transport in the bloodstream. One of its main functions is the transport of metals. Furthermore, as stated above, has an antimicrobial activity against gram- positive acting and gram negative bacteria, but also against some viruses and fungi. This capability can have several defense mechanisms, one is binding iron pathogens and thus to destroy and win the iron ( Rodríguez-Franco et al. , 2005 ) .
As a result, lactoferrin has a modulatory role of the immune response. Stimulates or inhibits various hormonal and cellular components involved in the prevention and/or resolution of infections and inflammation associated with these ( Drago- Serrano et al. 2008 ).
We must also say that apart from having antimicrobial activity, this protein also has other capabilities as immunoregulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer ( Öztaş et al. 2000).
It is for all these features that lactoferrin is indicated for patients with anemia (ability to obtain and transport of iron ), but also for everyone in general, since it allows a reinforcement of useful defenses against certain pathogens.
The lysozyme facilitates digestion of casein, free sugars in the intestine that growth factors are essential for some bacteria in our intestinal flora and has bacteriostatic activity against numerous bacterial species ( Alais , 2003).
This protein has antibiotic activity. Acts on some bacteria and dissolved by removal of the polysaccharide component of their cell walls ( Garg , 2010 ). In addition, it also has ( Shellhorn et al.1995 ) anti-inflammatory properties. The fact that it has these properties and is present in saliva, helps destroy bacteria that may come along with food and thus an area easily accessible to pathogens is protected.
Plays an important role in the regulation of cancer. The lysozyme is an antioxidant that acts as a regulator or "brake" in DNA replication (such as cell division control ). A signal that will reach the p53 gene is a tumor suppressor is sent. Thus, this gene is activated and will hold its antioncogènica or tumor suppressor action. If no lysozyme could activate DNA replication of cancer cells and growth factors for these cells. When this happens, this lack of lysozyme can cause tumors ( malignant or benign ) ( Lake et al. 2012 ).
The presence of lysozyme in the mare's milk is very beneficial to us because it protects us against various infectious diseases, but also of non-communicable diseases. Is so high the importance of this enzyme even in China is carrying out a project for lysozyme-rich milk from transgenic cows, genetically modified (Yang et al. , 2011 ).
Lysozyme is also presently used as protection in processed food such as cheese.